It is a minority culture that exists within a mainstream culture but deviates from mainstream culture often rejecting or actively rebelling against it's cultural norms and myths.
The internet allowed for the merging and meetings of distant subculture and cultures, in fact it would be more accurate to refer to the internet as having its own culture with infinite subcultures of its own. As each subculture has the benefit of being able to hyperspecialize into one field/topic, however a single person who engages with the internet is likely to be in numerous of these subcultures at any given time – be they lurking (present on a forum but not interacting with other users) or engaging with the subculture. Jakub Macek in his 2005 essay attempts to define cyberculture, in which he defines the following cultural narrative themes of cyberculture.
Internet cultures can be spurred into action however, for instance on April 1st 2017 the website Reddit gave its users a blank canvas of 1000 square pixels and 72 hours to draw on the canvas, but one user could only draw on the canvas every few minutes. This limitation forced groups to work in collaboration to draw what they wanted and then to defend it from other groups/users. Ultimately three major factions emerged Creators, Protectors and Destroyers.
Creators – wanting to make evermore complex marks on the canvas
Protectors – Wanting to preserve their favoured marks
Destroyers – A group that wanted to paint the hole canvas black
The project itself appears to be a reference to the 2005 million-dollar homepage. Due to dimensions and similarity of the chaotic end result.
On Scott McCloud's Closure and Transition
In this section, McCloud discusses what closure in comic books is and how it is used. Closure is the space between panels in which the readers mind can freely associate how one panel leads to another. This can be filling in the gaps in a walking cycle or the death of a character. The gutter is a space of infinite possibilities, that utilises the audience's imagination to conclude or connect panels.
McCloud supposes that the amount of closure required of the readers imagination is dependent on the type of transition between panels. He then goes on to define six transition types (these are listed in the Lecture Notes under "the potency of negative space").
Art Spiegelman and Maus
Spiegelman was born in 1948 in Stockholm, Sweden and immigrated with his parents to the USA in 1951. He began drawing cartoons in 1960 imitating the style he found in the comic books he owned. He studied art and philosophy at Harpur College. He began work on Maus, his most well-known work, in 1972 as a three-page strip for the first issue of “Funny Animals” he wanted to do the strip about racism choosing to write about the Holocaust that his parents had survived. His parents were Polish Jews, and both were imprisoned in Auschwitz, Maus drew from his father’s recollections of the Holocaust.
From 1980 Maus, was printed one chapter at a time as in insert in Raw (a magazine that Spiegelman co-edited). By 1986 Spiegelman published the first six chapters with Pantheon, the book found a large audience and was released in book stores rather than comic book stores, which were then main outlet for comics in the 1980’s.
The panel transitions used in Maus
For additional content on the page design of Maus, I would implore you to watch the following Nerdwriter1 video essay, which focuses on the design of page 12 above. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dQEfL2BfUM
On "Rhetoric of the Image" by Roland Barthes, and analysis of Panzini ad.
Magazine Advert Analysis
Textually the eye is first drawn to 1 but also to 3 which shares similar weight on the page, the pull between these two elements has almost a downward pull towards 1. The text “Redefining liveaboard diving” firstly supposes that that the audience has an understand on liveaboard diving, secondly give the implication that the service will be above that of other companies. 3 is signifier of the tale of a whale, which provides a signified of a whole whale – an animal known as on the of the deepest diving mammal understood to science this knowledge of whales provides the sign of extreme deep diving, to a depth that is almost fantastical. 3 is the key sign of the advert both it and the anchorage at 1 work as a duel message, the text and image suggesting that this company provides a diving experience that will take the consumer deeper and further than any other in new ways.
2 is a somewhat subtle snap back to reality as it defines a definite depth and passenger size.
Interesting the motion of the tale creates an upwards verticality to the rest of the piece, indicated by 4. If one allowed their imagination to continue the movement the tail would move over the text at the top of the page.
The advert has very much an very minimal pallet as shown in 5 it is near a duotone with only the image pushing it to at most a tritone, the predominate dark tone serves to highlight the white text.
On the “The Treachery of Images”, 1929 by Reni Magritte
"The Treachery of Images" is a surrealist art work by the artist Reni Magritte. The image depicts a painting of a smoking pipe, notable a pipe which is in appearance well-crafted and can easily be associated with upper-middle to upper class individuals at the time period that the. Under the Image is the anchorage in the langue French “Ceci n’est pas une pipe.”, which translated to English reads “This is not a pipe.”. The piece presents a photo realistic image of a pipe, Magritte often used a level of photo realism in his surrealism paintings which seems to be for the purpose of proving a more relatable basis from which he can abstract, as a result his work often has dreamlike qualities. However, this does not appear to be entirely the function of photo realism in The Treachery of Images, the realism of the pipe is for more deceptive purposes, the image so closely resembles a physical pipe that it will be more likely to register as a physical pipe in the audience’s mind. The signifier has been constructed to be as indistinguishable as possible from the signified. From this the caption/anchorage acts in an intersecting manner but works to counter the information provided by the image, as it disillusions the audience in reminding them that the image is merely a signifier of a real pipe. By reminding the viewer that the only true version of a signified is the signified, where as a signifier and a sign are illusions to the signified.
One can also interpret the painting as a reference to Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave”, where in the image and the noun of the pipe are the shadows on the wall and the viewers are the prisoners in the cave. When the prisoners are spectating the shadows, they don’t see the real objects from which the objects are cast — they see only the signifiers made for the signified. The prisoners in the cave think the shadows to be the true object until they see the true object, then the shadow is nothing more than a symbol of the object. The perceptual experience of an object’s shadow is wholly different to the concept of the object which that shadow creates.
The following is a video essay on the painting by Nerdwriter1 may also be of interest I’d recommend watching the video for more context and viewpoints.
On "Understanding Comics" by Scott McCloud
The aim of McCloud's comic is to elaborate and provide examples of the uses of anchorage, the paring of text and image.
In this anchorage the words are used to provide the context where as image is used to illustrate the text
In this anchorage the image provides context while the text is used for flavour, the example given is to provide a soundtrack through the use of onomatopoeia.
In this anchorage the images and words tell the exact same message, think like a young child's story book.
In this anchorage the images and words work together to increase the impact of, or elaborate on the other.
In this anchorage the image and words are disjointed from each other, following different paths of narrative. This appears in narration or monologuing.
In this anchorage the words are treated as part of an image.
In this anchorage the meanings of the words and image are used to created a third meaning, which one could not display alone.
McCloud then discusses what happen when either words or image are the carrier of weight of clarity. When it is the images that carry the weight the images become more literal, but then words can be used for; monologue; advertisement; incongruous; or broader topics. Contrastingly when words carry the weight of clarity the image can; show fragments of a scene; abstraction/expressionism; emotional information; or to depict a shift in time.
"The mixing of words and pictures is more alchemy than science."- Scott McCloud
Design In Context
Daniel Thomas Coates, graphic designer based in the UK. Currently a student at the University of Cumbria, Carlisle.